Hit Me Baby One More Time
There's an ambiguous undercurrent to the catchy
pop smash that introduced a pigtailed Britney Spears to the world in 1999 –
so much so that Jive Records changed the song's title to "… Baby One More
Time" after executives feared that it would be perceived as condoning
It's a safe bet, however, that neither Britney nor songwriter Max Martin ever
anticipated that this undercurrent would be picked up on by U.S. military personnel,
when they were ordered to keep prisoners awake by blasting ear-splittingly
loud music at them – for days, weeks, or even months on end – at prisons in
Iraq, Afghanistan and Guantánamo Bay.
The message, as released Guantánamo prisoner Ruhal Ahmed explained
in an interview earlier this year, was less significant than the relentless,
inescapable noise. Describing how he experienced music torture "on many
occasions," Ahmed said, "I can bear being beaten up, it's not a problem.
Once you accept that you're going to go into the interrogation room and be
beaten up, it's fine. You can prepare yourself mentally. But when you're being
psychologically tortured, you can't." He added, however, that "from
the end of 2003 they introduced the music, and it became even worse. Before
that, you could try and focus on something else. It makes you feel like you
are going mad. You lose the plot, and it's very scary to think that you might
go crazy because of all the music, because of the loud noise, and because after
a while you don't hear the lyrics at all, all you hear is heavy banging."
Despite this, the soldiers, who were largely left to their own devices when
choosing what to play, frequently selected songs with blunt messages – "F*ck
Your God" by Deicide, for example, which is actually an anti-Christian
rant, but one whose title would presumably cause consternation to believers
in any religion – even though, for prisoners not used to Western rock and rap
music, the music itself was enough to cause them serious distress. When CIA
operatives spoke to ABC
News in November 2005, as part of a groundbreaking report into the use
and other torture techniques on "high-value detainees" held in secret
prisons, they reported that, when prisoners were forced to listen to Eminem's
Slim Shady album, "The music was so foreign to them it made them
frantic." And in May 2003, when the story first broke that music was being
used by U.S. psy-ops teams in Iraq, Sgt. Mark Hadsell, whose favored songs
were said to be "Bodies" by Drowning Pool and "Enter Sandman"
by Metallica, told Newsweek,
"These people haven't heard heavy metal. They can't take it."
Approval for the Use of Music Torture in the "War on
Depending on people's musical tastes, responses
to reports that music has been used to torture prisoners often produces flippant
comments along the lines of, "If I had to listen to David Gray's 'Babylon'/
the theme tune from Barney the Purple Dinosaur/ Christina Aguilera,
I'd be crying 'torture' too." But the truth, sadly, is far darker, as
Hadsell explained after noting that prisoners in Iraq had a problem with heavy
metal music. "If you play it for 24 hours," Hadsell said, "your
brain and body functions start to slide, your train of thought slows down,
and your will is broken. That's when we come in and talk to them."
Hadsell, like senior figures in the administration, was blithely unconcerned
that "breaking" prisoners, rather than finding ways of encouraging
them to cooperate, was not to best way to secure information that was in any
way reliable, but the psy-ops teams were not alone. In September 2003, Lt.
Gen. Ricardo Sanchez, the U.S. military commander in Iraq, approved the use
of music as part of a package of measures for use on captured prisoners "to
create fear, disorient … and prolong capture shock," and as is spelled
out in an explosive new report by the Senate Armed Services Committee into
the torture and abuse of prisoners in U.S. custody [.pdf],
the use of music was an essential part of the reverse engineering of techniques,
known as Survival, Evasion, Resistance, Escape (SERE), which are taught in
U.S. military schools to train personnel to resist interrogation. The report
"During the resistance phase of SERE training, U.S. military personnel
are exposed to physical and psychological pressures … designed to simulate
conditions to which they might be subject if taken prisoner by enemies that
did not abide by the Geneva Conventions. As one … instructor explained, SERE
training is 'based on illegal exploitation (under the rules listed in the 1949
Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War) of prisoners
over the last 50 years.' The techniques used in SERE school, based, in part,
on Chinese Communist techniques used during the Korean war to elicit false
confessions, include stripping detainees of their clothing, placing them in
stress positions, putting hoods over their heads, disrupting their sleep, treating
them like animals, subjecting them to loud music and flashing lights, and exposing
them to extreme temperatures. It can also include face and body slaps, and
until recently, for some who attended the Navy's SERE school, it included waterboarding."
The Senate Committee's report, which lays the blame for the implementation
of these policies on senior officials, including President George W. Bush,
former defense secretary Donald Rumsfeld, Vice President Dick Cheney's former
legal counsel (and now chief of staff) David Addington, and former Pentagon
general counsel William J. Haynes II, makes it clear not only that the use
of music is part of a package of illegal techniques, but also that at least
part of its rationale, according to the Chinese authorities who implemented
it, was that it secured false confessions, rather than the "actionable
intelligence" that the U.S. administration was seeking.
The Experiences of Binyam Mohamed and Donald Vance
In case any doubt remains about the pernicious
effects of music torture, consider the following comments by Binyam
Mohamed, a British resident, still held in Guantánamo, who was tortured
in Morocco for 18 months on behalf of the CIA and for another four months in
the CIA's "Dark Prison" in Kabul, and Donald Vance, a U.S. military
contractor in Iraq, who was subjected to music torture for 76 days in 2006.
Speaking to his lawyer, Clive Stafford Smith, the director of Reprieve,
Mohamed, like Ruhal Ahmed, explained how psychological torture was worse than
the physical torture he endured in Morocco, where the CIA's proxy torturers
regularly cut his penis with a razor blade."Imagine you are given a choice,"
he said. "Lose your sight or lose your mind."
In Morocco, music formed only a small part of Mohammed's torture. Toward the
end of his 18-month ordeal, he recalled that his captors "cuffed me and
put earphones on my head. They played hip-hop and rock music, very loud. I
remember they played Meatloaf and Aerosmith over and over. I hated that. They
also played 2Pac, 'All Eyez On Me,' all night and all day. … A couple of days
later they did the same thing. Same music. I could not take the headphones
off, as I was cuffed. I had to sleep with the music on and even pray with it."
At the "Dark Prison," however, which was otherwise a plausible recreation
of a medieval dungeon, in which prisoners were held in complete darkness and
often chained to the walls by their wrists, the use of music was relentless.
As Mohamed explained:
"It was pitch black, and no lights on in the rooms for most of the
time. … They hung me up for two days. My legs had swollen. My wrists and hands
had gone numb. … There was loud music, Slim Shady and Dr. Dre for 20
days. I heard this nonstop over and over, I memorized the music, all of it,
when they changed the sounds to horrible ghost laughter and Halloween sounds.
It got really spooky in this black hole. … Interrogation was right from the
start, and went on until the day I left there. The CIA worked on people, including
me, day and night. Plenty lost their minds. I could hear people knocking their
heads against the walls and the doors, screaming their heads off. … Throughout
my time I had all kinds of music, and irritating sounds, mentally disturbing.
I call it brainwashing."
Vance's story demonstrates not only that the practice of using music as torture
was being used as recently as 2006, but also that it was used on Americans.
When his story first broke in December 2006, the New
York Times reported that he "wound up as a whistleblower, passing
information to the FBI about suspicious activities at the Iraqi security firm
where he worked, including what he said was possible illegal weapons trading,"
but that "when American soldiers raided the company at his urging, Mr.
Vance and another American who worked there were detained as suspects by the
military, which was unaware that Mr. Vance was an informer."
Vance, who was held at Camp Cropper, explained that he was routinely subjected
to sleep deprivation, taken for interrogation in the middle of the night, and
held in a cell that was permanently lit by fluorescent lights. He added, "At
most hours, heavy metal or country music blared in the corridor." Speaking
to the Associated
Press last week, he explained that the use of music as torture "can
make innocent men go mad," and added more about the use of music during
his imprisonment, stating that he was "locked in an overcooled 9-foot-by-9-foot
cell that had a speaker with a metal grate over it. Two large speakers stood
in the hallway outside." The music, he said, "was almost constant,
mostly hard rock. There was a lot of Nine Inch Nails, including 'March of the
Pigs.' I couldn't tell you how many times I heard Queen's 'We Will Rock You.'"
He added that the experience "sort of removes you from you. You can no
longer formulate your own thoughts when you're in an environment like that."
After his release, Vance stated that he planned to sue former Defense Secretary
Donald Rumsfeld, on the basis that his constitutional rights had been violated,
and noted, "Saddam Hussein had more legal counsel than I ever had."
He added that he had written a letter to the camp's commander "stating
that the same democratic ideals we are trying to instill in the fledgling democratic
country of Iraq, from simple due process to the Magna Carta, we are absolutely,
positively refusing to follow ourselves."
Musicians Take Action
The last time that the U.S. administration's
use of music as torture hit the headlines was in June, when Stafford Smith
raised the issue in the Guardian,
and when, in an accompanying article, the Guardian noted that David
Gray's song "Babylon" had become associated with the torture debate
after Haj Ali, the hooded man in the notorious Abu Ghraib photographs, told
of being stripped, handcuffed, and forced to listen to a looped sample of the
song, at a volume so high he feared that his head would burst. Gray spoke up
to condemn the practice. "The moral niceties of whether they're using
my song or not are totally irrelevant," he said. "We are thinking
below the level of the people we're supposed to oppose, and it goes against
our entire history and everything we claim to represent. It's disgusting, really.
Anything that draws attention to the scale of the horror and how low we've
sunk is a good thing."
In a subsequent interview with the BBC,
Gray complained that the only part of the torture music story that got noticed
was its "novelty aspect" – which he compared to Guantánamo['s]
Greatest Hits – and then delivered another powerful indictment of the
misappropriation of his and other artists' music. "What we're talking
about here is people in a darkened room, physically inhibited by handcuffs,
bags over their heads, and music blaring at them for 24 hours a day, seven
days a week," he said. "That is torture. That is nothing but torture.
It doesn't matter what the music is – it could be Tchaikovsky's finest or it
could be Barney the Dinosaur. It really doesn't matter, it's going to
drive you completely nuts." He added, "No one wants to even think
about it or discuss the fact that we've gone above and beyond all legal process
and we're torturing people."
Not every musician shared David Gray's revulsion. Bob Singleton, who wrote
the theme tune to Barney the Purple Dinosaur, which has been used extensively
in the "War on Terror," acknowledged in an op-ed for the Los
Angeles Times in July that "if you blare the music loud enough
for long enough, I guess it can become unbearable," but refused to accept
either that songwriters can legitimately have any say about how their music
is used, or that there were any circumstances under which playing music relentlessly
at prisoners could be considered torture. "It's absolutely ludicrous,"
he wrote. "A song that was designed to make little children feel safe
and loved was somehow going to threaten the mental state of adults and drive
them to the emotional breaking point?" He added, "The idea that repeating
a song will drive someone over the brink of emotional stability, or cause them
to act counter to their own nature, makes music into something like voodoo,
which it is not."
Singleton was not the only artist to misunderstand how music could indeed
constitute torture – especially when used as part of a package of techniques
specifically designed to "break" prisoners. Steve Asheim, Deicide's
drummer, said, "These guys are not a bunch of high school kids. They are
warriors, and they're trained to resist torture. They're expecting to be burned
with torches and beaten and have their bones broken. If I was a prisoner at
Guantánamo Bay and they blasted a load of music at me, I'd be like,
'Is this all you got? Come on.' I certainly don't believe in torturing people,
but I don't believe that playing loud music is torture either."
Furthermore, other musicians have been positively enthusiastic about the use
of their music. Stevie Benton of Drowning Pool, which has played to U.S. troops
in Iraq, told Spin magazine, "People assume we should be offended
that somebody in the military thinks our song is annoying enough that played
over and over it can psychologically break someone down. I take it as an honor
to think that perhaps our song could be used to quell another 9/11 attack or
something like that."
Fortunately, for those who understand that using music as part of a system
of torture techniques is no laughing matter, the Zero
dB initiative provides the most noticeable attempt to date to call a halt
to its continued use. Christopher Cerf, who wrote the music for Sesame Street,
was horrified to learn that the show's theme tune had been used in interrogations.
"I wouldn't want my music to be a party to that," he said.
Tom Morello of Rage Against the Machine has been particularly outspoken in
denouncing the use of music as torture. In 2006, he also spoke to Spin
magazine, and explained, "The fact that our music has been co-opted in
this barbaric way is really disgusting. If you're at all familiar with ideological
teachings of the band and its support for human rights, that's really hard
to stand." On this year's world tour, Rage Against the Machine regularly
turned up on stage wearing hoods and Guantánamo-orange jumpsuits, and
during a recent concert in San Francisco, Morello proposed taking revenge on
President George W. Bush: "I suggest that they level Guantánamo
Bay, but they keep one small cell and they put Bush in there … and they blast
some Rage Against the Machine."
And on Dec. 11, just after the Zero dB initiative was announced, Trent Reznor
of Nine Inch Nails posted the following
message on his blog:
"It's difficult for me to imagine anything more profoundly insulting,
demeaning, and enraging than discovering music you've put your heart and soul
into creating has been used for purposes of torture. If there are any legal
options that can be realistically taken they will be aggressively pursued,
with any potential monetary gains donated to human rights charities. Thank
GOD this country has appeared to side with reason and we can put the Bush administration's
reign of power, greed, lawlessness, and madness behind us."
Even James Hetfield of Metallica, who has generally been portrayed as a defender
of the U.S. military's use of his band's music, has expressed reservations.
In a radio
interview in November 2004, he said that he was "proud" that
the military had used his music (even though they "hadn't asked his permission
or paid him royalties"). "For me, the lyrics are a form of expression,
a freedom to express my insanity," he explained, adding, "If the
Iraqis aren't used to freedom, then I'm glad to be part of their exposure."
Hetfield laughed off claims that music could be used for torture, saying, "We've
been punishing our parents, our wives, our loved ones with this music for ever.
Why should the Iraqis be any different?" However, he also acknowledged
the reason that the military was using his music. "It's the relentlessness
of the music," he said. "It's completely relentless. If I listened
to a death metal band for 12 hours in a row, I'd go insane, too. I'd tell you
anything you wanted to know."
While these musicians have at least spoken out, others – including Eminem,
AC/DC, Aerosmith, the Bee Gees, Christina Aguilera, Prince, and the Red Hot
Chili Peppers – remain silent about the use of their work. Britney Spears'
views are also unknown, but if her comments
to CNN in September 2003 are anything to go by, it's unlikely that she
would find fault with it. When Tucker Carlson said to her, "A lot of entertainers
have come out against the war in Iraq. Have you?" Britney replied, "Honestly,
I think we should just trust our president in every decision he makes and should
just support that, you know, and be faithful in what happens." Perhaps
she should speak to Pamela
Anderson, who recently posted a simple message to Barack Obama on her blog:
"Please shut down Guantánamo Bay – figure it out – make amends/stop
torture – it's time for peaceful solutions."